In 1821, the city of Indianapolis was established as a planned city for the new headquarters of the Indiana state government. Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham designed the city on a 2.6 km (1 square mile) grid along the White River. The construction of the national and Michigan highways and the arrival of the railroad later solidified its position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of its nicknames, Crossroads of America and Railroad City, reflect its historic ties to transportation.
Since the consolidation of the city and county in 1970, known as Unigov, local government administration has been managed by an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. In addition to newspaper reports, details of Indianapolis's early history are documented in the diary of Calvin Fletcher, one of the first prominent citizens who was actively involved in the city's civic and business affairs. The Indiana State Fair has been held annually in Indianapolis since 1852, and the NASCAR Memorial Day 500 mile race, the Indianapolis 500, was first held in 1911. Indianapolis has had a close relationship with politics since its election as the seat of the Indiana government in the 1820s, but early on it became a railroad transportation hub for the region and a center for civic and cultural activities. A number of journals and memoirs stand out as being particularly important to Indianapolis history students. Graduate students from Butler University and the University of Indianapolis have also studied various aspects of the city's history. Notable weeklies include NUVO, an alternative weekly, the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly that serves the local African-American community, the Indianapolis Business Journal, which covers local real estate news, and the Southside Times. Baptists, Presbyterians, and Methodists established the first religious congregations in Indianapolis in the 1820s, but other groups such as Episcopalians, Disciples of Christ, Lutherans, Catholics, Congregationalists, Society of Friends (Quakers), Universalists, Unitarians, and Jewish congregations were established in Indianapolis before the Civil War.
The Indianapolis Turngemeinde (185), or Turners, merged with other German clubs and became known as the Indianapolis Social Turnverein. Indianapolis was founded as the seat of Indiana's new capital in 1820 by an act of the Indiana General Assembly; however, it was home to Lenape (nation of Delaware), a native tribe that lived along White River. The Assembly passed a less exhaustive version of original bill that combined city and county's budgetary functions, allowed City-County Council to vote to consolidate Indianapolis Police Department and Marion County Sheriff's Department, and also allowed consolidation of Indianapolis Fire Department with fire departments of individual municipalities based on approval of affected parties. In 1821, Indianapolis became seat of newly formed Marion County and four years later when state legislature met for first time it had street and population of 600 people. However, Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department is not only law enforcement agency in Marion County not even from before Indianapolis Unigov. The fascinating history of Indianapolis is full of interesting stories that have shaped this vibrant city into what it is today. From its founding in 1821 to its current status as a major transportation hub and political center, this city has seen many changes over its long history.
From Calvin Fletcher's diary to graduate students' research projects at Butler University and University of Indianapolis to various journals and memoirs that document its past, there is much to learn about this great city. Additionally, religious congregations from Baptists to Jews have been established here since before the Civil War. Finally, events such as the Indiana State Fair since 1852 and NASCAR Memorial Day 500 mile race since 1911 have made their mark on this city's history.