The city of Indianapolis, Indiana has a long and storied history that dates back to 1821. It was founded as a planned city for the new headquarters of the Indiana state government, designed by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham. The city was plotted on a 2.6 km (1 square mile) grid along the White River, and its strategic location at the intersection of national and Michigan highways, as well as the arrival of the railroad, solidified its position as a major manufacturing and transportation hub. This is why it has earned two nicknames: 'Crossroads of America' and 'Railroad City'.In 1970, the city and county were consolidated into Unigov, with local government administration being overseen by an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. The city also has several notable weeklies such as NUVO, an alternative weekly; the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly that serves the local African-American community; the Indianapolis Business Journal, which reports on local real estate news; and the Southside Times. Indianapolis has a long and rich literary history that includes such notable figures as Booth Tarkington, Kurt Vonnegut, Mari Evans, and many more.
The Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) is the principal law enforcement agency in the city.